High-value co-products made from lignin
Products developed from lignin can make a wood-based biorefinery profitable.
Based on current estimates, for every ton of forest slash used to make bio-jet fuel, 1450 pounds of lignin-rich solids that left over as a byproduct. The most common strategy for using these lignin-rich solids is to burn them for heating and electrical needs.
While this strategy remains a potentially valid one, NARA researchers have developed products made from the lignin-rich solids.
NARA estimates that these lignin-rich products could contribute up to 42% of the revenue generated by a biorefinery that converts forest harvest residuals in biojet fuel.
NARA’s work has resulted in:
- the chemical characterization of lignin resulting from the sulfite-based pretreatment and fermentation process developed by NARA.
- materials with many commercial applications, such as activated carbon, thermal plastics, epoxies, and industrial chemical feedstocks, created from the NARA lignin.
- methods to chemically alter lignin into platform molecules used to make valuable chemical feedstocks.
Unique Low-molecular-weight Lignin with High Purity Extracted from Wood by Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES): A Source of Lignin for Valorization
Alvarez-Vasco, C., Ma, R., Quintero, M., Guo, M., Geleynse, S., Ramasamy, K.K., Wolcott, M. & Zhang, X. (2016). Unique low-molecular-weight lignin with high purity extracted from wood by deep eutectic solvents (DES): a source of lignin for valorization. Green Chemistry. Online edition. Retrieved 6/21/16 at http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2016/gc/c6gc01007e#!divAbstract
Arogenate Dehydratase Isoenzymes Profoundly and Differentially Modulate Carbon Flux into Lignins
Corea, O.R.A., Ki, C., Cardenas, C.L., Kim, S.J., Brewer, S.E., Patten, A.M., Davin, L.B., & Lewis, N.G. (2012). Arogenate dehydratase isoenzymes profoundly and differentially modulate carbon flux into lignins. J. Biol. Chem., 287, 11446-11459. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.322164
Mechanochemical Oleation of Lignin through Ball Milling and Properties of its Blends with PLA.
Guo, X., Xin, J., Wolcott, M.P. & Zhang, J. (2016). Mechanochemical oleation of lignin through ball milling and properties of its blends with PLA. Chemistry Select, 1(13), 3449-3454. doi:10.1002/slct.201600633
Understanding the Effects of Lignosulfonate on Enzymatic Saccharification of Pure Cellulose
Lou, H., Zhou, H., Li, X., Wang, M., Zhu, J.Y., & Qiu, X. (2014). Understanding the effects of lignosulfonate on enzymatic saccharification of pure cellulose. Cellulose, 21,1351-1359. doi: 10.1007/s10570-014-0237-z
Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds
Ma, R., Guo, M., Lin, K., Hebert, V.R., Zhang, J., Wolcott, M.P., Quintero, M., Ramasamy, K.K., Chen, X., & Zhang, X. (1016). Peracetic acid depolymerization of biorefinery lignin for production of selective monomeric phenolic compounds. Chem. Eur.J., 22, 1-9. doi: 10.1002/chem.201600546
Selective Conversion of Biorefinery Lignin to Dicarboxylic Acids
Ma, R.S., Guo, M., & Zhang, X. (2014). Selective conversion of biorefinery lignin to dicarboxylic acids. ChemSusChem, 7(2), 412-415. doi: 10.1002/cssc.201300964
Catalytic Oxidation of Biorefinery Lignin to Value-added Chemicals to Support Sustainable Biofuel Production
Ma, R.S., Xu, Y. & Zhang, X. (2015). Catalytic oxidation of biorefinery lignin to value-added chemicals to support sustainable biofuel production. ChemSusChem, 8(1), 24-51. doi: 10.1002/cssc.201402503
Extractives in Douglas-fir Forestry Residue and Considerations for Biofuel Production
Oleson, K.R. & Schwartz, D.T. (2015). Extractives in Douglas-fir forestry residue and considerations for biofuel production. Phytochemistry Review, online edition, 1-24. doi: 10.1007/s11101-015-9444-y
Biorefinery Lignosulfonates from Sulfite-Pretreated Softwoods as Dispersant for Graphite
Qin, Y., Chang, Y., Wu, R., Yang, D., Qiu, X. & Zhu, J.Y. (2016). Biorefinery lignosulfonates from sulfite-pretreated softwoods as dispersant for graphite. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 4, 2200–2205. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b01664
Use of Polycarboxylic Acid Derived from Partially Depolymerized Lignin as a Curing Agent for Epoxy Application
Qin, J., Wolcott, M., & Zhang, J. (2014). Use of polycarboxylic acid derived from partially depolymerized lignin as a curing agent for epoxy application. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 2(2), 188-193. doi: 10.1021/sc400227v
Path to Plastics Composed of Ligninsulphonates (Lignosulfonates)
Wang, Y.-Y., Chen, Y.-r., Sarkanen, S. (2015). Path to plastics composed of ligninsulphonates (lignosulfonates). Green Chemistry, 17, 5069-5078.
A Green Epoxy Resin System Based on Lignin and Tung Oil and its Application in Epoxy Asphalt
Xin, J., Li, M., Li, R., Wolcott, M.P. & Zhang, J. (2016) A green epoxy resin system based on lignin and tung oil and its application in epoxy asphalt. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 4(5), 2754-2761. doi: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b00256
Partial Depolymerization of Enzymolysis Lignin via Mild Hydrogenolysis Over Raney Nickel
Xin, J, Zhang, P., Wolcott, M.P., Zhang, X., & Zhang, J. (2014). Partial depolymerization of enzymolysis lignin via mild hydrogenolysis over Raney Nickel. Bioresource Technology, 155, 422-426. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.12.092.
Compositions Including Lignin
Chen, Y.-r., Sarkanen, S., & Wang, Y.-Y. “Compositions Including Lignin.” International Patent Application No. PCT/US2015/020599. March 2015.
Lignin as a Biorefinery Co-product Market Opportunity
Cline, S.P. (2016). Lignin as a biorefinery co-product market opportunity. M.Sc.Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University.