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Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatment of Softwood: Hemicellulose Degradation Pathways

Alvarez-Vasco, C. & Zhang, X. (2013). Alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment of softwood: hemicellulose degradation pathways. Bioresource Technology, 150, 321-327. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2013.10.020

Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Douglas Fir Forest Residues: Pretreatment Yield, Hemicellulose Degradation, and Enzymatic Hydrolysability

Alvarez-Vasco, C., Guo, M. & Zhang, X. (2015). Dilute acid pretreatment of Douglas fir forest residues: pretreatment yield, hemicellulose degradation, and enzymatic hydrolysability. BioEnergy Research, 8(1), 42-52. doi:10.1007/s12155-014-9496-7.

Unique Low-molecular-weight Lignin with High Purity Extracted from Wood by Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES): A Source of Lignin for Valorization

Alvarez-Vasco, C., Ma, R., Quintero, M., Guo, M., Geleynse, S., Ramasamy, K.K.,Wolcott, M. & Zhang, X. (2016). Unique low-molecular-weight lignin with high purity extracted from wood by deep eutectic solvents (DES): a source of lignin for valorization. Green Chemistry, 18, 5133-5141. doi: 10.1039/C6GC01007E

Forest Road Access Decisions for Woods Chip Trailers Using Ant Colony Optimization and Breakeven Analysis

Beck, S. & Sessions, J. (2013). Forest road access decisions for woods chip trailers using ant colony optimization and breakeven analysis. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 34(2), 201-215.

Economic Implications of Moisture Content and Logging System in Forest Harvest Residue Delivery for Energy Production: a Case Study

Belart, F., Sessions, J., Leshchinsky, B. & Murphy, G. (2017). Economic implications of moisture content and logging system in forest harvest residue delivery for energy production: a case study. Canadian J. of Forest Research, 47(4), 458-466. doi: 10.1139/cjfr-2016-0428

Predicting Logging Residue Volumes in the Pacific Northwest

Berg, E., Morgan, T., Simmons, E., Zarnoch, S. & Scudder M. (2016). Predicting logging residue volumes in the Pacific Northwest. For. Sci. Advanced online publication. doi:

Pretreatment of forest residues of Douglas fir by wet explosion for enhanced enzymatic saccharification

Biswas, R., Teller, P.J. & Ahring, B.K. (2015). Pretreatment of forest residues of Douglas fir by wet explosion for enhanced enzymatic saccharification. Bioresource Technology, 192, 46-53. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2015.05.043

Carbon Storage and Nutrient Mobilization from Soil Minerals by Deep Roots and Rhizospheres

Callesen, I., Harrison, R., Stupak, I., Hatten, J., Raulund-Rasmussen, K., Boyle, J., Clarke, N. & Zabowski, D. (2016). Carbon storage and nutrient mobilization from soil minerals by deep roots and rhizospheres. Forest Ecology and Management, 359, 322-331. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.08.019

Modeling the Collection and Transportation Logistics of Forest Residues using Life Cycle Assessment 

Chen, C., Pierobon, F., Zamora, R., Ganguly, I., Sessions, J. & Eastin, I. (2017). Modeling the collection and transportation logistics of forest residues using life cycle assessment. Journal of Forestry, 115, 86-94. doi.10.5849/jof.2016-027

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Fossil and Bio-Based Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Bottles

Chen, L., Pelton, R.E.O. & Smith, T.M. (2016). Comparative life cycle assessment of fossil and bio-based polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Journal of Cleaner Production, 137, 667-676. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.07.094

U.S. Biofuels Industry: A Critical Review of Opportunities and Challenges

Chen, M., Smith, P.M., & Wolcott, M.P. (2016). U.S. biofuels industry: a critical review of opportunities and challenges. BioProducts Business, 1(4), 42-59.

High Solids Quasi-Simultaneous Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Undetoxified Whole Slurry of SPORL Pretreated Douglas-fir Forest Residue

Cheng, J., Leu, S.-Y, Gleisner, R, Pan, X.J. & Zhu, J.Y. (2014). High solids quasi-simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of un-detoxified whole slurry of SPORL pretreated Douglas-fir forest residue. Cellulose Chem. Technol.48(9-10), 849-854.

High Titer and Yield Ethanol Production from Undetoxified Whole Slurry of Douglas-fir Forest Residue using pH-Profiling in SPORL

Cheng, J., Leu, S.Y., Zhu, J.Y. & Gleisner, R. (2015) High titer and yield ethanol production from undetoxified whole slurry of Douglas-fir forest residue using pH-profiling in SPORL. Biotechnol. Biofuels, 8, 22. doi:10.1186/s13068-015-0205-3

The Potential Rural Development Impacts of Utilizing Non-Merchantable Forest Biomass

Crandall, M.S., Adams, D.M., Montgomery, C.A. & Smith, D. (2017). The potential rural development impacts of utilizing non-merchantable forest biomass. Forest Policy and Economics, 74, 20-29. doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2016.11.002

Arogenate Dehydratase Isoenzymes Profoundly and Differentially Modulate Carbon Flux into Lignins

Corea, O.R.A., Ki, C., Cardenas, C.L., Kim, S.J., Brewer, S.E., Patten, A.M., Davin, L.B., & Lewis, N.G. (2012). Arogenate dehydratase isoenzymes profoundly and differentially modulate carbon flux into lignins. J. Biol. Chem., 287, 11446-11459. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.322164

Nitrogen Leaching Following Whole-Tree and Bole-Only Harvests on Two Contrasting Pacific Northwest Sites

Devine, W.D., Footen, P.A., Strahm, B.D., Harrison, R.B., Terry, T.A., & Harrington T.B. (2012). Nitrogen leaching following whole-tree and bole-only harvests on two contrasting Pacific Northwest sites. For. Ecol. Mgt., 267, 7-17. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2011.11.043

Beyond Conservation: Reimagining the Purpose of Energy Education

DeWaters, J.E., Hougham, J., Hintz, C. & Frolich, L (2015). Beyond conservation: reimagining the purpose of energy education. The Journal of Sustainability Education. 8(January). Retrieved from

A Co-production of Sugars, Lignosulfonates, Cellulose, and Cellulose Nanocrystals from Ball-milled Woods

Du, L., Wang, J., Zhang, Y., Qi, C., Wolcott, M.P. & Yu, Z. (2017). A co-production of sugars, lignosulfonates, cellulose, and cellulose nanocrystals from ball-milled woods. Bioresource Technology, Online Edition. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.03.097

Retrieved from

Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals from Bio-ethanol Residuals

Du, L., Wang, J., Zhang, Y., Qi, C., Wolcott, M.P. & Yu, Z. (2017). Preparation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from bio-ethanol residuals. Nanomaterials, 7(3), 51. doi:10.3390/nano7030051

Teacher Professional Development for Energy Literacy: A Comparison of Two Approaches

Eitel, K.B., Hougham, J., Laninga, T., Fizzell, G., Schone, J. & Hendrickson, D. (2015). Teacher professional development for energy literacy: a comparison of two approaches. The Journal of Sustainability Education, 8(January). Retrieved from

Upload/Download: Empowering Students Through Technology-Enabled Problem-Based Learning

Eitel, K.B., Hougham, R.J., Miller, B.G., Schon, J., & LaPaglia, K. (2013). Upload/download: empowering students through technology-enabled problem-based learning. Science Scope, 36(7), 32-39. Retrieved from

Wildfire Risk as a Socio-Ecological Pathology

Fischer, A.P., Spies, T.A., Steelman, T.A., Moseley, C., Johnson, B.R., Bailey, J.D., Ager, A.,…& Bowman, D.M.J.S. (2016). Wildfire risk as a socio-ecological pathology. Frontiers in Ecology, 14(5), 276-284. doi: 10.1002/fee.1283

Revisiting Renewable Portfolio Standard Effectiveness: Policy Design and Outcome Specification Matter

Fischlein, M. & Smith, T. (2013). Revisiting renewable portfolio standard effectiveness: policy design and outcome specification matter. Policy Sciences, 46(3), 277-310. doi:10.1007/s11077-013-9175-0.

Design and Optimization of a Semi-Continuous High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Extraction System for Acetic Acid

Garrett, B.G., Srinivas, K., & Ahring, B.K. (2014). Design and optimization of a semi-continuous high pressure carbon dioxide extraction system for acetic acid. J.of Supercritical Fluids, 95, 243-251. doi:10.1016/j.supflu.2014.08.029

Performance and Stability of Amberlite TM IRA-67 Ion Exchange Resin for Product Extraction and pH Control During Homolactic Fermentation of Corn Stover Sugars

Garrett, G.B., Srinivas, K., & Ahring, B.K. (2015). Performance and stability of Amberlite TM IRA-67 ion exchange resin for product extraction and pH control during homolactic fermentation of corn stover sugars. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 94,1-8. doi:10.1016/j.bej.2014.11.004

Genetic Parameters of Factors Affecting the Biomass Recalcitrance of Douglas-Fir Trees

Geleynse, S., Jayawickrama, K., Trappe, M., Ye,T. & Zhang, X. (2016) Genetic Parameters of Factors Affecting the Biomass Recalcitrance of Douglas-Fir Trees. BioEnerg. Res., 9(3), 731-739. doi: 10.1007/s12155-016-9718-2

Fermentative High Titer Ethanol Production from a Douglas-fir Forest Residue without Detoxification Using SPORL: High SO2 Loading at a Low Temperature

Gu, F., Gilles, W., Gleisner, R. & Zhu, J.Y. (2016). Fermentative high titer ethanol production from a Douglas-fir forest residue without detoxification using SPORL: high SO2 loading at a low temperature.Ind. Biotechnol., 12(3),168-175. doi: 10.1089/ind.2015.0028

Mechanochemical Oleation of Lignin through Ball Milling and Properties of its Blends with PLA.

Guo, X., Xin, J., Wolcott, M.P. & Zhang, J. (2016). Mechanochemical oleation of lignin through ball milling and properties of its blends with PLA. Chemistry Select, 1(13), 3449-3454. doi:10.1002/slct.201600633

A Multi-Level Analysis Approach to Measuring Variations in Biomass Recalcitrance of Douglas Fir Tree Samples

Geleynse, S., Alvarez-Vasco, C., Garcia, K., Jayawickrama, K., Trappe, M., & Zhang, X. (2014). A multi-level analysis approach to measuring variations in biomass recalcitrance of Douglas fir tree samples. BioEnerg. Res., 7, 1411-1420. doi:10.1007/s12155-014-9483-z

Microbial Lipid Production from SPORL-Pretreated Douglas fir by Mortierella isabellina

Harde, S.M., Wang, Z., Zhu, J.Y. & Pan, X. (2016). Microbial lipid production from SPORL-Pretreated Douglas fir by Mortierella isabellina, Fuel, 175, 64-74. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel/2016.02.023

Microbial Lipid Production from SPORL-Pretreated Douglas fir by Mortierella isabellina

Harde, S.M., Wang, Z., Zhu, J.Y. & Pan, X. (2016). Microbial lipid production from SPORL-pretreated Douglas fir by Mortierella isabellina. Fuel, 175, 64-74. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel/2016.02.023

Understanding the Consequences of Land Use Changes on Sustainable River Basin Management in the Pacific Northwest, USA

Hasan, M.M., Barber, M.E., Goel, R., & Mahler, R.L. (2015). Understanding the consequences of land use changes on sustainable river basin management in the Pacific Northwest, USA. WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, 197, 25-35. ISSN 1743-3541.

Global Sustainability: An Authentic Context for Energy Education

Hendrickson, D., Corrigan, K., Keefe, A., Shaw, D., Jacob, S., Skelton, L., …Hougham, J. (2015). Global sustainability: an authentic context for energy education. The Journal of Sustainability Education, 8(January). Retrieved from

Predicting Risk of Long-Term Nitrogen Depletion under Whole-Tree Harvesting in the Coastal Pacific Northwest

Himes, A.J., Turnblom, E.C., Harrison, R.B., Littke, K.M., Devine, W.D., Zabowski, D, & Briggs, D.G. (2013). Predicting risk of long-term nitrogen depletion under whole-tree harvesting in the coastal Pacific Northwest. Forest Science, 60(2), 382-390. doi:10.5849/forsci.13-009

From the Forest to the Classroom: Energy Literacy as a Co-Product of Biofuels Research

Hougham, J., Hollenhorst, S., Schon, J., Eitel, K.B., Hendrickson, D., Gotch, C., …Moslemi, J. (2015). From the forest to the classroom: energy literacy as a co-product of biofuels research. The Journal of Sustainability Education, 8(January). Retrieved from

Lessons on Buried Horizons and Pedogenesis from Deep Forest Soils

James, J.N., Dietzen, C., Joel, C.F. & Harrison, R.B. (2015). Lessons on buried horizons and pedogenesis from deep forest soils. Soil Horizons, 1-8. doi: 10.2136/sh15-02-0004.

Deep Soil: Quantification, Modeling, and Significance of Subsurface Nitrogen

James, J., Knight, E., Gamba, V., & Harrison, R. (2015). Deep soil: quantification, modeling, and significance of subsurface nitrogen. Forest Ecology and Management, 336,194-202. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2014.10.010

Exchangeable Cations in Deep Forest Soils: Separating Climate and Chemical Controls on Vertical Distribution and Cycling

James, J., Littke, K., Bonassi, T. & Harrison, R. (2016). Exchangeable cations in deep forest soils: separating climate and chemical controls on vertical distribution and cycling. Geoderma, 279(1),109-121. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.05.022

Current Status, Uncertainty and Future Needs in Soil Organic Carbon Monitoring

Jandl, R., Rodeghiero, M., Martinez, C., Cotrufo, F.M., Bampa, F., van Wesemael, B., Lorenz, K., Chabbi, A., & Miglietta, F. (2014). Current status, uncertainty and future needs in soil organic carbon monitoring. Science of the Total Environment, 468-469, 376-383. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.026

Microstructure Change in Wood Cell Wall Fracture from Mechanical Pretreatment and its Influence on Enzymatic Hydrolysis

Jiang, J., Wang, J., Zhang, X. & Wolcott, M.P.  (2017). Microstructure change in wood cell wall fracture from mechanical pretreatment and its influence on enzymatic hydrolysis. Industrial Crops and Products, 97, 498-508.  doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.01.001 0926-6690

Characterization of Micronized Wood and Energy-Size Relationship in Wood Comminution

Jiang, J., Wang, J., Zhang, X. & Wolcott, M. (2017). Characterization of micronized wood and energy-size relationship in wood comminution. Fuel Processing Technology, 161, 76-84. doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2017.03.015

Evaluation of Physical Structural Features on Influencing Enzymatic Hydrolysis Efficiency of Micronized Wood.

Jiang, J., Wang, J., Zhang, X. & Wolcott, M.P.  (2016).  Evaluation of physical structural features on influencing enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of micronized wood.  RSC Advances, 6, 103026-103034. doi: 10.1039/C6RA22371K 

Forecasting Air Drying Rates of Small Douglas-fir and Hybrid Poplar Stacked Logs in Oregon, USA

Kim, D.W. & Murphy, G. (2013). Forecasting air drying rates of small Douglas-fir and hybrid poplar stacked logs in Oregon, USA. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 24(2), 137-147. doi:10.1080/14942119.2013.798132

Structural Changes of the Thylakoid Membrane Network Induced by High Light Stress in Plant Chloroplasts

Kirchhoff, H. (2014). Structural changes of the thylakoid membrane network induced by high light stress in plant chloroplasts. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1663). doi: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0225

Diffusion of Molecules and Macromolecules in Thylakoid Membranes

Kirchhoff, H. (2014). Diffusion of molecules and macromolecules in thylakoid membranes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1837(4), 495-502. doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2013.11.003

Artifact-Based Energy Literacy Assessment Utilizing Rubric Scoring

Langfitt, Q., Haselbach, L., & Hougham, J. (2014) Artifact-based energy literacy assessment utilizing rubric scoring. J. Prof. Issues Eng. Educ. Pract. Retreived from:

Refinement of an Energy Literacy Rubric for Artifact Assessment and Application to the Imagine Tomorrow High School Energy Competition

Langfitt, Q., Haselbach, L., & Hougham, J. (2015). Refinement of an energy literacy rubric for artifact assessment and application to the Imagine Tomorrow high school energy competition. The Journal of Sustainability Education, 8(January). Retrieved from

From Wood to Wing: Opportunities to Build an Advanced Biofuels Industry in the Pacific Northwest Utilizing its Timber-based Assets

Laninga, T., Millman, S. & Payne, K. (2014/2015). From wood to wing: opportunities to build an advanced biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest utilizing its timber-based assets. Western Planner, December/January, 35(5), 12-19.

Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocelluloses Should be Conducted at Elevated pH 5.2–6.2

Lan, T.Q., Lou, H., & Zhu, J.Y. (2013). Enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses should be conducted at elevated pH 5.2-6.2. Bioenerg. Res., 6(2), 476-485. doi:10.1007/s12155-012-9273-4.

Biomass Supply Curves for Western Juniper in Central Oregon, USA, Under Alternative Business Model and Policy Assumptions

Lauer, C., McCaulou, J., Sessions, J. & Capalbo, S. (2015). Biomass supply curves for western juniper in central Oregon, USA, under alternative business model and policy Assumptions. J. Forest Policy and Economics, 59, 75-82. doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2015.06.002.

Robust Enzymatic Saccharification of a Douglas-fir Forest Harvest Residue by SPORL

Leu, S., Zhu, J., Gleisner, R., Sessions, J., & Marrs, G. (2013). Robust enzymatic saccharification of a Douglas-fir forest harvest residue by SPORL. Biomass and Bioenergy, 59, 393-401. doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.08.014

Substrate-Related Factors Affecting Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocelluloses: Our Recent Understanding

Leu, S-Y & Zhu, J.Y. (2013). Substrate-related factors affecting enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses: our recent understanding. BioEnergy Research, 6(2), 405-415. doi: 10.1007/s12155-012-9276-1

Assessing Nitrogen Fertilizer Response of Coastal Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest Using a Paired-Tree Experimental Design

Littke, K.M., Harrison, R.B., Zabowski, D., & Briggs, D.G. (2014). Assessing nitrogen fertilizer response of coastal Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest using a paired-tree experimental design. Forest Ecology and Management, 330, 137-143. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2014.07.008

Determining the Effects of Biogeoclimatic Properties on Different Site Index Systems of Douglas-fir in the Coastal Pacific Northwest

Littke, K. M., Harrison, R.B. & Zabowski, D. (2016). Determining the effects of biogeoclimatic properties on different site index systems of Douglas-fir in the coastal Pacific Northwest. Forest Science. Advanced online publication. doi:

Effects of Geoclimatic Factors on Soil Water, Nitrogen, and Foliar Properties of Douglas-fir Plantations in the Pacific Northwest

Littke, K.M., Harrison, R.B., Zabowski, D., Briggs, D.G., & Maguire, D.A. (2014). Effects of geoclimatic factors on soil water, nitrogen, and foliar properties of Douglas-fir plantations in the Pacific Northwest.Forest Science, 60(6), 1118-1130. doi:

Assessing the Specific Energy Consumption and Physical Properties of Comminuted Douglas-fir Chips for Bioconversion.

Liu, Y., Wang, J. & Wolcott, M.P. (2016). Assessing the specific energy consumption and physical properties of comminuted Douglas-fir chips for bioconversion. Industrial Crops and Products, 94, 394-400.

Evaluating the Effect of Wood Ultrastructural Changes from Mechanical Treatment on Kinetics of Monomeric Sugars and Chemicals Production in Acid Bisulfite Treatment

Liu, Y, Wang, J. & Wolcott, M.P. (2017). Evaluating the effect of wood ultrastructural changes from mechanical treatment on kinetics of monomeric sugars and chemicals production in acid bisulfite treatment. Bioresource Technology, 226, 24-30. doi.10.1016/j.biortech.2016.12.009

Modeling the Sugar and Byproducts from Acid Bisulfite Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Douglas-fir

Liu, Y., Wang, J. & Wolcott, M.P.  (2016).  Modeling the sugar and byproducts from acid bisulfite pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of Douglas-fir.  Bioresource Technology [online edition].  doi:  10.1016/j.biortech.2016.10.071. 

Multistep Process to Produce Fermentable Sugars and Lignosulfonates from Softwood Enzymolysis Residues

Liu, Y., Wang J. & Wolcott, M.P. (2016).  Multistep process to produce fermentable sugars and lignosulfonates from softwood enzymolysis residues.  ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering [online edition].  doi: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b02328. 

An Evaluation of Alternative Measurement Techniques for Estimating the Volume of Logging Residues

Long, J. & Boston, K. (2014). An evaluation of alternative measurement techniques for estimating the volume of logging residues. Forest Science, 60(1), 200-204. doi:

pH-Induced Lignin Surface Modification to Reduce Nonspecific Cellulase Binding and Enhance Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocelluloses

Lou, H., Zhu, J.Y., Lan, T.Q., Lai, H., & Qiu, X. (2013). pH-Induced lignin surface modification to reduce nonspecific cellulase binding and enhance enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses.ChemSusChem, 6(5), 919-927. doi:10.1002/cssc.201200859

Understanding the Effects of Lignosulfonate on Enzymatic Saccharification of Pure Cellulose

Lou, H., Zhou, H., Li, X., Wang, M., Zhu, J.Y., & Qiu, X. (2014). Understanding the effects of lignosulfonate on enzymatic saccharification of pure cellulose. Cellulose, 21,1351-1359. doi: 10.1007/s10570-014-0237-z

Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds

Ma, R., Guo, M., Lin, K., Hebert, V.R., Zhang, J., Wolcott, M.P., Quintero, M., Ramasamy, K.K., Chen, X., & Zhang, X. (2016). Peracetic acid depolymerization of biorefinery lignin for production of selective monomeric phenolic compounds. Chem. Eur.J., 22, 1-9. doi: 10.1002/chem.201600546

Selective Conversion of Biorefinery Lignin to Dicarboxylic Acids

Ma, R.S., Guo, M., & Zhang, X. (2014). Selective conversion of biorefinery lignin to dicarboxylic acids.ChemSusChem, 7(2), 412-415. doi: 10.1002/cssc.201300964

Catalytic Oxidation of Biorefinery Lignin to Value-added Chemicals to Support Sustainable Biofuel Production

Ma, R.S., Xu, Y. & Zhang, X. (2015). Catalytic oxidation of biorefinery lignin to value-added chemicals to support sustainable biofuel production. ChemSusChem, 8(1), 24-51. doi: 10.1002/cssc.201402503

Forest Biomass Feedstock Cost Sensitivity to Grinding Parameters for Bio-jet Production

Marrs, G., Zamora-Cristales, R. & Sessions, J. (2016). Forest biomass feedstock cost sensitivity to grinding parameters for bio-jet production. Renewable Energy, 99, 1082-1091.

Biorefinery Site Selection Using a Stepwise Biogeophysical and Social Analysis Approach

Martinkus, N., Rijkoff, S.A.M., Hoard, S.A., Shi, W., Smith, P., Gaffney, M. & Wolcott, M. (2017). Biorefinery site selection using a stepwise biogeophysical and social analysis approach. Biomass and Bioenergy, 97, 139-148. doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2016.12.022

Integrating Biogeophysical and Social Assets Into Biomass-to-Biofuels Supply Chain Siting Decisions

Martinkus, N., Shi, W., Lovrich, N., Pierce, J., Smith, P., & Wolcott, M. (2014). Integrating biogeophysical and social assets into biomass-to-biofuels supply chain siting decisions. Biomass & Bioenergy, 66, 410-418. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.04.014

A Framework for Quantitatively Assessing the Repurpose Potential of Existing Industrial Facilities as a Biorefinery.

Martinkus, N. & Wolcott, M. (2017). A framework for quantitatively assessing the repurpose potential of existing industrial facilities as a biorefinery. Biofuels, Bioproducts, & Biorefining [Online Version].  doi:10.1002/bbb.1742

Slash and learn: Revealing stakeholder knowledge, support, and preferred communication methods relative to wood-based biofuels projects.

Moroney, J., Laninga, T., & Brooks, R. (2016). Slash and learn: Revealing stakeholder knowledge, support, and preferred communication methods relative to wood-based biofuels projects. Journal of Extension, 54(5), Article # 5RIB10. Retrieved from

Environmental Assessment of Mild Bisulfite Pretreatment of Forest Residues into Fermentable Sugars for Biofuel Production

Nwaneshiudu, C., Ganguly, I., Pierobon, F., Bowers, T. & Eastin, I. (2016). Environmental assessment of mild bisulfite pretreatment of forest residues into fermentable sugars for biofuel production. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 9(15). doi: 10.1186/s13068-016-0433-1

Rational Design of Polymer-Based Absorbents: Application to the Fermentation Inhibitor Furfural

Nwaneshiudu, C. & Schwartz, D.T. (2015). Rational design of polymer-based absorbents: application to the fermentation inhibitor furfural. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 8(72), 1-8. doi: 10.1186/s13068-015-0254-7

Extractives in Douglas-fir Forestry Residue and Considerations for Biofuel Production

Oleson, K.R. & Schwartz, D.T. (2015). Extractives in Douglas-fir forestry residue and considerations for biofuel production. Phytochemistry Review, online edition, 1-24. doi: 10.1007/s11101-015-9444-y

Fast Pyrolysis of Wood for Biofuels: Spatiotemporally Resolved Diffuse Reflectance In situ Spectroscopy of Particles

Paulsen, A.D., Hough, B.R., Williams, C.L., Teixeira, A.R., Schwartz, D.T., Pfaendtner, J., & Dauenhauer, P.J. (2014). Fast pyrolysis of wood for biofuels: spatiotemporally resolved diffuse reflectance In situ spectroscopy of particles. ChemSusChem, 7(3), 765-776. doi: 10.1002/cssc.201400088

Production of Sugars from Wood Waste Materials Via Enzymatic Hydrolysis

Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R. & Englund, K.R. (2017). Production of sugars from wood waste materials via enzymatic hydrolysis. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 8(3), 883-892. doi: 10.1007/s12649-016-9652-8

Hotspot Scenario Analysis: Comparative Streamlined LCA Approaches for Green Supply Chain and Procurement Decision Making

Pelton, R.E.O. & Smith T.M. (2014). Hotspot scenario analysis: comparative streamlined LCA approaches for green supply chain and procurement decision making. Journal of Industrial Ecology; 19(1); 427-440. doi: 10.1111/jiec.12191

Evaluation of Environmental Impacts of Harvest Residue-based Bioenergy Using Radiative Forcing Framework

Pierobon, F., Ganguly, I., Anfodillo, T., & Eastin, I. (2014). Evaluation of Environmental Impacts of Harvest Residue-based Bioenergy Using Radiative Forcing Framework. Forestry Chronicle, 90(5), 577-585. doi: 10.5558/tfc2014-120

Use of Eugenol and Rosin as Feedstocks for Biobased Epoxy Resins and Study of Curing and Performance Properties

Qin, J., Liu, H., Zhang, P., Wolcott, M., & Zhang, J. (2014). Use of eugenol and rosin as feedstocks for biobased epoxy resins and study of curing and performance properties. Polymer International, 63(4),760-765. doi:10.1002/pi.4588

Use of Polycarboxylic Acid Derived from Partially Depolymerized Lignin as a Curing Agent for Epoxy Application

Qin, J., Wolcott, M., & Zhang, J. (2014). Use of polycarboxylic acid derived from partially depolymerized lignin as a curing agent for epoxy application. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 2(2), 188-193. doi: 10.1021/sc400227v

Biorefinery Lignosulfonates from Sulfite-Pretreated Softwoods as Dispersant for Graphite

Qin, Y., Chang, Y., Wu, R., Yang, D., Qiu, X. & Zhu, J.Y. (2016). Biorefinery lignosulfonates from sulfite-pretreated softwoods as dispersant for graphite. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 4, 2200–2205. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b01664

Biorefinery Lignosulfonates as a Dispersant for Coal Water Slurry

Qin, Y., Yang, D., Gu, F., Li, X., Xiong, W. & Zhu, J.Y. (2016). Biorefinery Lignosulfonates as a Dispersant for Coal Water Slurry. Sustainable Chemical Processes, 4(1),1-8. doi: 10.1186/s40508-016-0050-0

Managing Moist Temperate Forests for Bioenergy and Biodiversity

Root, H. & Betts M.G. (2016). Managing moist temperate forests for bioenergy and biodiversity. Journal of Forestry, 114(1), 66-74. doi:

Plant Diversity Enhances Moth Diversity in an Intensive Forest Management Experiment

Root, H.T., Verschuyl, J., Hammond, P., Stokely, T., Scherr, M. & Betts, M.G. (2017). Plant diversity enhances moth diversity in an intensive forest management experiment. Ecological Applications, 27(1), 134-142. doi: 10.1002/eap.1426

A Survey of Bioenergy Research in Forest Service Research and Development

Rudie, A.W., Houtman, C.J., Groom, L.H., Nicholls, D.L. & Zhu, J.Y. (2016). A survey of bioenergy research in forest service research and development. Bioeng Res., 9, 534-547. doi 10.1007/s12155-016-9731-5

Journey to Polymeric Materials Composed Exclusively of Simple Lignin Derivatives 

Sarkanen, S., Chen, Y-r. & Wang, Y-Y. (2016). Journey to polymeric materials composed exclusively of simple lignin derivatives. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 4(10), 5223-5229. doi: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01700

Creating a Research to Classroom Pipeline: Closing the Gap Between Science Research and Educators

Schon, J., Eitel, K.B., Hougham, J. & Hendrickson, D. (2015). Creating a research to classroom pipeline: closing the gap between science research and educators. The Journal of Sustainability Education, 8(January). Retrieved from

The Value of a Tree: Comparing Carbon Sequestration to Forest Products

Schon, J., Hougham, R.J., Eitel, K.B., & Hollenhorst, S. (2014). The value of a tree: comparing carbon sequestration to forest products. Science Scope, 37(7), 27 – 35. Retrieved at

Pricing Forest Biomass for Power Generation

Sessions, J., Tuers, K., Boston, K., & Zamora, R. (2013). Pricing forest biomass for power generation.West J. of Applied Forestry, 28(2), 51-56.

The Effects of Urea Fertilization on Carbon Sequestration on Douglas-fir Plantations of the Costal Pacific Northwest

Shryock, B., Littke, K., Ciol, M., Briggs, D., & Harrison, R. (2014). The effects of urea fertilization on carbon sequestration on Douglas-fir plantations of the costal Pacific Northwest. Forest Ecology and Management, 318, 341-348. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2014.01.040

Characteristics of Forest-Derived Woody Biomass Collected and Processed in Oregon

Smith,. D, Sessions, J., Tuers, K., Way, D., & Travers, J. (2012). Characteristics of forest derived woody biomass collected and processed in Oregon. Forest Products J., 62(7/8), 520-527.

Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature on Cluster Size of Cellulose Char by Quantitative Multi-Cross-Polarization 13C-NMR with Long Range Dipolar Dephasing

Smith, M., Helms, G., Mcewen, J-S. & Garcia-Perez, M. (2017). Effect of pyrolysis temperature on cluster size of cellulose char by quantitative multi-cross-polarization 13C-NMR with long range dipolar dephasing. Carbon , 116, 210-222. doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2017.01.078

Improving the Deconvolution and Interpretation of XPS Spectra from Chars by ad Initio Calculations

Smith, M., Scudiero, L., Espinal, J., McEwen, J-S. & Garcia-Perez, M. (2016). Improving the deconvolution and interpretation of XPS spectra from chars by ad initio

calculations. Carbon, 110, 155-171. doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2016.09.012

Drivers and Barriers to the Adoption and Diffusion of Sustainable Jet Fuel (SJF) in the Pacific Northwest

Smiths, P.M., Gaffney, M.J., Shi, W., Hoard, S., Armendariz, I.I. & Mueller, D.W. (2017). Drivers and barriers to the adoption and diffusion of sustainable jet fuel (SJF) in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Air Transport Management, 58, 113-124. doi: 10.1016/j.jairtraman.2016.10.004

Prioritization of Forest Restoration Projects: Tradeoffs Between Wildfire Protection, Ecological Restoration and Economic Objectives

Vogler, K., Ager, A., Day, M., Jennings, M. & J. Bailey. (2015). Prioritization of forest restoration projects: tradeoffs between wildfire protection, ecological restoration and economic objectives. Forests, 6(12), 4403-4420. doi:10.3390/f6124375

Path to Plastics Composed of Ligninsulphonates (Lignosulfonates)

Wang, Y.-Y., Chen, Y.-r., Sarkanen, S. (2015). Path to plastics composed of ligninsulphonates (lignosulfonates). Green Chemistry, 17, 5069-5078.

A Green Epoxy Resin System Based on Lignin and Tung Oil and its Application in Epoxy Asphalt

Xin, J., Li, M., Li, R., Wolcott, M.P. & Zhang, J. (2016) A green epoxy resin system based on lignin and tung oil and its application in epoxy asphalt. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 4(5), 2754-2761. doi: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b00256

Partial Depolymerization of Enzymolysis Lignin via Mild Hydrogenolysis Over Raney Nickel

Xin, J, Zhang, P., Wolcott, M.P., Zhang, X., & Zhang, J. (2014). Partial depolymerization of enzymolysis lignin via mild hydrogenolysis over Raney Nickel. Bioresource Technology, 155, 422-426. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.12.092.

A Novel and Formaldehyde-Free Preparation Method for Lignin Amine and its Enhancement for Soy Protein Adhesive.

Xin, J, Zhang, P., Wolcott, M.P., Zhang, J., Hiscox, W.C. & Zhang, X (2016). A novel and formaldehyde-free preparation method for lignin amine and its enhancement for soy protein adhesive. J Polym. Environ. [Online Edition]. Doi: 10.1007/s10924-016-0844-x. Retrieved from

Batch Fermentation Options for High Titer Bioethanol Production from a SPORL Pretreated Douglas-fir Forest Residue without Detoxification

Yang, M., Ji, H. & Zhu, J.Y. (2016). Batch fermentation options for high titer bioethanol production from a SPORL pretreated Douglas-fir forest residue without detoxification. Fermentation, 2(3), 16. doi: 10.3390/fermentation2030016

Modeling Harvest Forest Residue Collection for Bioenergy Production.

Zamora-Cristales, R. & Sessions, J. (2016). Modeling harvest forest residue collection for bioenergy production. Croat. J. for . eng., 32, 287-295

Economic Implications of Grinding, Transporting, and Pretreating Fresh Verses Aged Residues for Biofuel Production

Zamora, R.C., Sessions, J. & Marrs, G. (2017). Economic implications of grinding, transporting, and pretreating fresh versus aged forest residues for biofuel production. Can. J. For. Res., 47, 269-276. doi: 10.1139/cjfr-2016-0221

Economic Optimization of Forest Biomass Processing and Transport in the Pacific Northwest

Zamora, R.C., Sessions, J., Boston, K., & Murphy, G. (2015). Economic optimization of forest biomass processing and transport in the Pacific Northwest. Forest Science. 61(2), 220-234. doi: 10.5849/forsci.13-158

Effect of High Speed Blowing on the Bulk Density of Ground Residues

Zamora, R., Sessions, J., Smith, D., & Marrs G. (2014). Effect of high speed blowing on the bulk density of ground residues. Forest Prod. J., 64(7/8), 290-299. doi:

Ground-Based Thinning on Steep Slopes in Western Oregon: Soil Exposure and Strength Effects

Zamora, R., Adams, P., & Sessions, J. (2014). Ground-based thinning on steep slopes in western Oregon: soil exposure and strength effects. Forest Science, 60(5), 1014-1020. doi:

Stochastic Simulation and Optimization of Mobile Chipping Economics in Processing and Transport of Forest Biomass from Residues

Zamora, R., Boston, K., Sessions, J., & Murphy, G. (2013) Stochastic simulation and optimization of mobile chipping economics in processing and transport of forest biomass from residues. Silva Fennica, 47(5). Retrieved from

Are Double Trailers Effective for Transporting Forest Biomass on Steep Terrain?

Zamora, R.C. & Sessions, J. (2015). Are double trailers effective for transporting forest biomass on steep terrain? California Agriculture, 69(3), 177-183. doi: 10.3733/ca.v069n03p177

Economic Impact of Truck–Machine Interference in Forest Biomass Recovery Operations on Steep Terrain

Zamora, C.R., Sessions, J., Murphy, G., & Boston, K. (2013). Economic impact of truck–machine interference in forest biomass recovery operations on steep terrain. Forest Products Journal, 63(5/6), 162-173. doi: 10.13073/FPJ-D-13-00031

Effect of Grinder Configuration on Forest Biomass Bulk density, Particle Size Distribution and Fuel Consumption

Zamora, R., Sessions, J., Smith, D., & Marrs G. (2015). Effect of grinder configuration on forest biomass bulk density, particle size distribution and fuel consumption. Biomass and Bioenergy., 81, 44-54. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2015.05.025

Xylanase Supplementation on Enzymatic Saccharification of Dilute Acid Pretreated Poplars at Different Severities

Zhang, C., Zhuang, X.S., Wang, Z.J., Matt, F.J., St. John, F. & Zhu, J.Y. (2013). Xylanase supplementation on enzymatic saccharification of dilute acid pretreated poplars at different severities. Cellulose, 20(4), 1937-1946. doi: 10.1007/s10570-013-9934-2

Using a Combined Hydrolysis Factor to Optimize High Titer Ethanol Production from Sulfite-Pretreated Poplar Without Detoxification

Zhang, J., Gu, F., Zhu, J.Y. & Zalesny, R.S. (2015). Using a combined hydrolysis factor to optimize high titer ethanol production from sulfite-pretreated poplar without detoxification. Bioresource Technology, 186, 223-231. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.03.080

Effect of Hot-Pressing Temperature on the Subsequent Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation Performance of SPORL Pretreated Forest Biomass

Zhang, J., Laguna, A., Clemons, C., Wolcott, M.P., Gleisner, R., Zhu, J.Y., & Zhang, X. (2014). Effect of hot-pressing temperature on the subsequent enzymatic saccharification and fermentation performance of SPORL pretreated forest biomass. Bioenerg. Res. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s12155-014-9530-9

Using Low Temperature to Balance Enzymatic Saccharification and Furan Formation during SPORL Pretreatment of Douglas-Fir

Zhang, C., Houtman, C.J., & Zhu, J.Y. (2014). Using low temperature to balance enzymatic saccharification and furan formation during SPORL pretreatment of Douglas-fir. Process Biochemistry, 49, 466-473. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2013.12.017

Comparison of Dilute Acid and Sulfite Pretreatment for Enzymatic Saccharification of Earlywood and Latewood of Douglas Fir

Zhang, C., Lei, X., Scott, T.C., & Zhu, J.Y. (2014). Comparison of dilute acid and sulfite pretreatment for enzymatic saccharification of earlywood and latewood of Douglas fir. Bioenerg. Res, 7(1), 326-370. doi: 10.10007/s12155-013-9276-6

Fractionation of Forest Residues of Douglas-fir for Fermentable Sugar Production by SPORL Pretreatment

Zhang, C., Zhu, J.Y., Gleisner, R., & Sessions, J. (2012). Fractionation of forest residues of Douglas-fir for fermentable sugar production by SPORL pretreatment. Bioenerg. Res., 5(4), 978-988. doi:10.1007/s12155-012-9213-3

Lignosulfonate to Enhance Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocelluloses: The Role of Molecular Weight and Substrate Lignin

Zhou, H.F., Lou, H., Yang, D., Zhu, J.Y., & Qiu, X. (2013). Lignosulfonate to enhance enzymatic saccharification of ignocelluloses: the role of molecular weight and substrate lignin. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 52(25), 8464-8470. doi:10.1021/ie401085k

Bioconversion of Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine Using SPORL: Process Scale-up Design, Lignin Co-Product, and High Solids Fermentation without Detoxification

Zhou, H.F., Zhu, J.Y., Luo, X., Leu, S-Y., Wu, X., Gleisner, R., … Negron, J. (2013). Bioconversion of beetle-killed lodgepole pine using SPORL: process scale-up design, lignin co-product, and high solids fermentation without detoxification. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 52, 16057-16065. doi:10.1021/ie402873y

Case Studies on Sugar Production from Underutilized Woody Biomass Using Sulfite Chemistry

Zhu, J.Y., Chandra, S.M., Gleisner, R., Gilles, W., Gao, J., Marrs, G., Anderson, D. & Sessions, J. (2015). Case studies on sugar production from underutilized woody biomass using sulfite chemistry.TAPPI Journal, 14(9), 577-583.

Using Sulfite Chemistry for Robust Bioconversion of Douglas-fir Forest Residue to Bioethanol at High Titer and Lignosulfonate: A Pilot-Scale Evaluation

Zhu, J.Y., Chandra, S.M. Go, F., Gleisner, R., Reiner, R., Sessions, J., … Anderson, D. (2015). Using sulfite chemistry for robust bioconversion of Douglas-fir forest residue to bioethanol at high titer and lignosulfonate: A pilot-scale evaluation. Bioresource Technology, 179, 390-397. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2014.12.052

Isolation and Characterization of Cellulose Micro/Nanofibrils from Douglas Fir 

Zhu, R. & Yadama, V. (2017).  Isolation and characterization of cellulose micro/nanofibrils from Douglas fir. Journal of Polymers and the Environment [Online Publication]. doi: 10.1007/s10924-017-1013-6. Retrieved from

Effects of Hot Water Extraction Pretreatment on Physicochemical Changes of Douglas fir

Zhu, R. & Yadama, V. (2016). Effects of hot water extraction pretreatment on physicochemical changes of Douglas fir. Biomass and Bioenergy, 90, 78-89.

Fabrication and Characterization of Nylon 6/Cellulose Nanofibrils Melt-spun Nanocomposite Filaments

Zhu, R., Yadama, V., Liu, H., Lin, R.J.T. & Harper, D. P. (2017). Fabrication and characterization of nylon 6/cellulose nanofibrils melt-spun nanocomposite filaments. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing [Online Edition]. Retrieved from

Non-peer reviewed articles

Forestry Tour Educates Youth in North Central Idaho

Brooks, R. & Moroney, J. (2014) Forestry tour educates youth in north central Idaho.Journal of Extension 52 (4). Retrieved from:

From Wood to Wing: Biofuels and the NARA Opportunity

Brooks, R. (2012, December). From wood to wing: biofuels and the NARA opportunity.Idaho Farm Bureau Producer, 16(8), 16-17. Retrieved from

NARA: Residual Woody Biomass Conversion to Biojet Fuel and other Valuable Co-Products

Burke C. (2012, Fall). NARA: residual woody biomass conversion to biojet fuel and other valuable co-products. Northwest Woodlands, 28(4), 14-16. Retrieved from

Using Slash Piles to Make Chemical Products

Burke, C., Leavengood, S, & Yadama, V. (2015, Jan./Feb.). Using slash piles to make chemical products. Western Forester, 60(1), 7-9. Retrieved from

Environmental Assessments of Woody Biomass Based Jet-Fuel

Ganguly, I., Eastin, I.L., Bowers, T., Huisenga, M., & Pierobon, F. (2014, Winter). Environmental assessments of woody biomass based jet-fuel. Cintrafor News. Retrieved from

Managing for Long-Term Soil Productivity in Pacific Northwestern Forests

Harrington, T.B. & Holub S.M. (2014, Summer). Managing for long-term soil productivity in Pacific Northwestern forests. Western Forester. 59(3), 1-4. Retrieved from

AL@: Combining the Strengths of Adventure Learning and Place Based Education

Hougham, R.J., Eitel, K.B., & Miller, B.G. (2012, July 1) AL@: Combining the strengths of adventure learning and place based education. 2012 CLEARING Compendium. 38-41. Retrieved from

Is Biomass a Future Market for Montana?

Kolb, P. (2012, Fall). Is biomass a future market for montana? Northwest Woodlands, 28(4), 18-20. Retrieved from

From Wood to Wing: NARA Works to Harness Woody Biomass for Aviation Biofuel

Lowell, E.C. & Leavengood, S. (2013, Summer). From wood to wing: NARA works to harness woody biomass for aviation biofuel. Western Forester. 58(3), 12-13. Retrieved from

Redefining Renewable Biomass: A Policy Change with Cascading Outcomes

Moore-Drougas, K.E., Schwartz, D.T., James, L & Durglo, J. (2016). Redefining renewable biomass: A policy change with cascading outcomes. Brookings Blog Post, March 29, 2016. Retrieved from

Economic Impact Analysis of a NARA Woody Biomass Jet Fuel Refinery

Sasatani, D. & Eastin, I.L. (2017). Economic impact analysis of a NARA woody

biomass jet fuel refinery. CINTRAFOR Newsletter, Autumn/Winter, 8-9.

Wood to Wing: The Northwest Advanced Renewables Energy Alliance

Walker, C. & Burke, C. (2013, August 28) Wood to wing: The Northwest renewables energy alliance. TAPPI, Ahead of the Curve. Retrieved from

The Pulp and Paper Industry in 2040

Zhu, J.Y. (2015). The pulp and paper industry in 2040. TAPPI Journal, 14(3), S19-S20

Technical Reports

Allometric Relationships and Above-Ground Nutrient Pools under Varying Stand Density and Nitrogen Fertilization Regimes 

Coons, K., Mainwaring, D., Bluhm, A., Maguire, D., Harrison, R. & Turnblom, E. (2012). Allometric relationships and above-ground nutrient pools under varying stand density and nitrogen fertilization regimes. CIPS Annual Report, 2011. Pp. 39-42.

Allometric Relationships and Above-Ground Nutrient Pools under Varying Stand Density and Nitrogen Fertilization Regimes

Coons, K., Maguire, D., Mainwaring, D., Bluhm, A., Harrison, R. & Turnblom, E. (2013). Allometric relationships and above-ground Douglas-fir biomass and nutrient pools under varying stand density and nitrogen fertilization regimes. CIPS Annual Report, 2012. Pp. 28-32.

Estimating Nutrient Pools and Nutrient Removals under Varying Intensities of Timber Harvest and Residue Utilization in Douglas-fir Plantations.

Coons, K., Maguire, D., Mainwaring, D., Bluhm, A., Harrison, R., Footen, P., Knight, E. & Turnblom, E. (2014). Estimating nutrient pools and nutrient removals under varying intensities of timber harvest and residue utilization in Douglas-fir plantations. CIPS Annual Report, 2013. Pp. 49-55.

Estimating Tree Biomass, Carbon, and Nitrogen in Two Vegetation Control Treatments in an 11-Year Old Douglas-Fir Plantation on a Highly Productive Site

Devine, W.D., Footen, P.A., Harrison, R.B., Terry, T.A., Harrington, C.A., Holub, S.M., & Gould, P.J. (2013). Estimating tree biomass, carbon, and nitrogen in two vegetation control in an 11-year old Douglas-fir plantation on a highly productive site. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Research Paper PNW-RP-591.

Biomass Equations for Intensively Managed Douglas-fir Trees

Hann, D., Mainwaring, D. & Maguire, D. (2015). Biomass equations for intensively managed Douglas-fir trees. CIPS Annual Report, 2014. Pp. 46-49.

CIPS 2013 Annual Report, Center for Intensive Planted-forest Silviculture, College of Forestry

Maguire, D.A. (2014). Models for the height and shape of the heartwood core on Douglas-fir. Pp. 37-41 in D.A. Maguire and D.B. Mainwaring (eds). CIPS 2013 Annual Report, Center for Intensive Planted-forest Silviculture, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Estimating Nutrient Pools and Fluxes under Varying Intensities of Timber Harvest and Residue Utilization in Douglas-fir Plantations Ecosystems

Mainwaring, D., Maguire, D., Bluhm, A., Footen, P., Harrison, R., Knight, E., Coons, K., & Turnblom, E. (2015). Estimating nutrient pools and fluxes under varying intensities of timber harvest and residue utilization in Douglas-fir plantations ecosystems. CIPS Annual Report, 2014. Pp. 50-53.

Logging Utilization in Idaho: Current and Past Trends

Simmons, E.A, Morgan, T.A, Berg, E.C., Zarnoch, S.J., Hayes, S.W., & Thompson, M.T. (2014). Logging utilization in Idaho: current and past trends. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-318.

Oregon’s Forest Products Industry and Timber Harvest, 2013

Simmons, E., Scudder, M., Berg, E., Morgan, T. & Hayes, S. (2015). Oregon’s forest products industry and timber harvest, 2013. Draft tables at:

Book Chapters

A Simulated Annealing Algorithm to Solve the Log-Truck Scheduling Problem

Acuna, M. & Sessions, J. (2014). A simulated annealing algorithm to solve the log-truck scheduling problem. In: Simulated Annealing: Strategies, Potential Uses and Advantages. NOVA Science. Chapter 8, pp. 191-220.

United States Law and Policy and the Biofuel Industry

Dahmann, K.S., Fowler, L.B. & Smith, P.M. (2016). United States law and policy and the biofuel industry. In Y.L. Bouthillier, A. Cowie, P. Martin, & H. McLeod-Kilmurray (Eds.), Law and Policy of Biofuels (pp. 102-140). Northampton, MA., USA: Edward Elgar Pub. Inc. doi:10.4337/9781782544555

Implementing Sustainability in the Global Sector: Toward the Convergence of Public and Private Forest Policy

Smith, T.M., Murillo, S.A.M., Anderson, B.M. (2014). Implementing Sustainability in the Global Sector: Toward the Convergence of Public and Private Forest Policy. In E. Hansen, R. Panwar, R. Vlosky (Eds.), The Global Forest Sector: Changes, Practices, and Prospects(pp. 237-258). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press

Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) for Bioconversion of Woody Biomass

Zhang, C., Gleisner, R., Houtman, C.J., Pan, X. & Zhu, J.Y. (2016). Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) for Bioconversion of Woody Biomass. In S.I. Mussatto, (Ed.), Biomass Fractionation Technologies for a Lignocellulosic Feedstock Based Biorefinery (pp. 499-541). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elservier. ISBN: 9780128023235

Educational Materials

Facing the Future (2015). Fueling our Future: Exploring Sustainable Energy Use, Elementary School ed. Received from

Facing the Future (2014). Fueling our Future: Exploring Sustainable Energy Use, Middle School ed. Received from

Facing the Future (2014). Fueling our Future: Exploring Sustainable Energy Use, High School ed. Received from

Facing the Future (2014). Fueling our Future: Exploring Sustainable Energy Use, SMART Board ed. Received from


Compositions Including Lignin

Chen, Y.-r., Sarkanen, S., & Wang, Y.-Y. “Compositions Including Lignin.” International Patent Application No. PCT/US2015/020599. March 2015.

Compositions Including Ligninsulfonate and Methods of Forming and Compositions Including Un-Alkylated Lignin

Sarkanen, S.; Chen, Y.-r.; Wang, Y.-Y. “Compositions including ligninsulfonate and methods of forming and compositions including un-alkylated lignin”.

International Application No. PCT/US2016/050372. March, 2017

Sulfite Pretreatment for Biorefining Biomass

Wang, G.S., Pan, X.J., Zhu, J.Y., & Gleisner, R.L. “Sulfite pretreatment for biorefining biomass.” U.S. Patent 9,090,915 B2. July 2015.

Methods of pretreating lignocellulosic biomass with reduced formation of fermentation inhibitors

Zhu, J.Y. & Gleisner, R. “Methods of Pretreating Lignocellulosic Biomass with Reduced Formation of Fermentation Inhibitors”. U.S. Utility Patent No. 9,243,364 B2. December, 2015

Reducing Non-Specific Enzyme Binding to Enhance Lignocellulose Conversion

Zhu, J.Y. “Reducing non-specific enzyme binding to enhance lignocellulose conversion”. U.S. Patent 9,074,231 B2. July 2015.


An Aggregated Understanding of Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide (AHP) Pretreatment of Biomass and Hemicellulose Conversion

Alverez Vasco, C. A. (2016). An aggregated understanding of alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment of biomass and hemicellulose conversion. Ph.D Thesis, Washington State University.

Forest Harvest Residue Moisture Management in the Pacific Northwest, USA

Belart, F. (2016). Forest harvest residue moisture management in the Pacific Northwest, USA. PhD thesis, Oregon State University

Assessing Patial Distribution and Availability of Forest Biomass by Harvesting System in the Pacific Northwest, USA

Berry, M. (2015). Assessing spatial distribution and availability of forest biomass by harvesting system in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Master of Forestry Thesis, Oregon State University.

Lignin as a Biorefinery Co-product Market Opportunity

Cline, S.P. (2016). Lignin as a biorefinery co-product market opportunity. M.Sc.Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University.

Douglas–fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii) Biomass and Nutrient Removal under Varying Harvest Scenarios Involving Co-production of Timber and Feedstock for Liquid Biofuels

Coons, K.L. (2014). Douglas–fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii) biomass and nutrient removal under varying harvest scenarios involving co-production of timber and feedstock for liquid biofuels. M.Sc. Thesis, Oregon State University.

Arabidopsis Arogenate Dehydratases: Influence on Aromatic Amino Acid and Downstream Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis

Corea, R. A. C (2011). Arabidopsis arogenate dehydratases: influence on aromatic amino acid and downstream phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Ph.D Thesis, Washington State University.

The Effects of Increased Supply and Emerging Technologies in the Forest Products Industry on Rural Communities in the Northwest U.S.

Crandall, M.S. (2014). The effects of increased supply and emerging technologies in the forest products industry on rural communities in the Northwest U.S. Ph.D Thesis, Oregon State University.

Using Acoustic Measurements and Inventory Data to Estimate Stiffness in Standing Douglas-Fir Trees

Delgado, J. (2015). Using acoustic measurements and inventory data to estimate stiffness in standing Douglas-Fir trees. M.Sc Thesis, Oregon State University.

Gasification of in-Forest Residues

Faires, K.B. (2013). Gasification of in-forest biomass residues. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Washington.

Response of Soil Temperature, Moisture, and Respiration Two Years Following Intensive Organic Matter and Compaction Manipulations in Oregon Cascade Forests

Gallo, A.C. (2017). Response of soil temperature, moisture, and respiration two years following intensive organic matter and compaction manipulations in Oregon Cascade forests. M.Sc Thesis, Oregon State University.

The Effects of Biogeoclimatic Properties on Water and Nitrogen Availability and Douglas-Fir Growth and Fertilizer Response in the Pacific Northwest.

Hanft, K.I. (2012). The effects of biogeoclimatic properties on water and nitrogen availability and Douglas-fir growth and fertilizer response in the Pacific Northwest. Ph.D Thesis, University of Washington

Evaluating the Environmental Impact of Woody Biomass Removal fro Biofuel Production

Hasan, M.M. (2015). Evaluating the environmental impact of woody biomass removal for biofuel production. M.Sc. Thesis, The University of Utah.

Deep Soil. Quantification, Modeling, and Significance of Subsurface Carbon and Nitrogen

James, J. (2014). Deep soil. Quantification, modeling, and significance of subsurface carbon and nitrogen. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Washington.

Assessing Mechanical Deconstruction of Softwood Cell Wall for Cellulosic Biofuels Production. 

Jiang, J.  (2016).  Assessing mechanical deconstruction of softwood cell wall for cellulosic biofuels production.  PH.D. thesis. Washington State University

Successional Accretion Along a Productivity Gradient Following Fire Exclusion in the Southern Blue Mountains

Johnston, J. (2016). Successional accretion along a productivity gradient following fire exclusion in the southern Blue Mountains. PhD. thesis, Oregon State University.

Modeling Air-Drying of Douglas-fir and Hybrid Poplar Biomass in Oregon.

Kim, D.-W (2012). Modeling air-drying of Douglas-fir and hybrid poplar biomass in Oregon. M.Sc. Thesis, Oregon State University

Harvest intensity and competing vegetation control have little effect on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir plantation.

Knight, E. (2013). Harvest intensity and competing vegetation control have little effect on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir plantation. M.Sc Thesis, University of Washington

Size Reduction and Sulfite Pretreatment of Softwood for Efficient Hydrolysis and High-Value Products Yield

Liu, Y. (2016).  Size reduction and sulfite pretreatment of softwood for efficient hydrolysis and high-value products yield.  Ph.D. thesis, Washington State University.

Energy Consumption of Grinding Unbaled and Baled Forest Harvest Residues

Loeppky, J. (2015). Energy consumption of grinding unbaled and baled forest harvest residues. Master of Forestry Thesis, Oregon State University.

A Multi-Criteria Decision Support Tool for Biorefinery Siting.

Martinkus, N. (2016).  A multi-criteria decision support tool for biorefinery siting.  Ph.D. thesis, Washington State University.

Fuel Treatment Longevity in the Blue Mountains of Oregon

Morici, K. (2017). Fuel treatment longevity in the Blue Mountains of Oregon. Master of Science thesis. Oregon State University.

Barking Up the Right Tree: A Social Assessment of Wood to Liquid Biofuels Stakeholders in the Pacific Northwest

Moroney, J. (2015). Barking Up the Right Tree: A Social Assessment of Wood to Liquid Biofuels Stakeholders in the Pacific Northwest. Ph.D Thesis, University of Idaho.

Douglas-Fir Stump Decomposition: Modeling Carbon Residence Times

Norton, M. (2015). Douglas-fir stump decomposition: modeling carbon residence times. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Washington.

Tailoring Polymer Micro-extraction Phases to Enhance the Sensitivity and Selectivity of Raman Spectroscopy.

Nwaneshiudu, I. (2013). Tailoring polymer micro-extraction phases to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of raman spectroscopy. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Washington

Evaluation of Six Tools for Estimating Woody Biomass Moisture Content.

Ochoa, F.A.B. (2012). Evaluation of six tools for estimating woody biomass moisture content. M.Sc. Thesis, Oregon State University

Construction and Demolition Recycled Wood Waste Assessment within the Northwest United States.

Schneider, G. (2013). Construction and demolition recycled wood waste assessment within the Northwest United States. M.Sc. Thesis, Washington State University

Sustainable Biomass Supply from Fuel Reduction Treatments: A Biomass Assessment of Federally Owned Land in Eastern Oregon.

Volger, K.C. (2014) Sustainable biomass supply from fuel reduction treatments: A biomass assessment of federally owned land in Eastern Oregon. M.Sc. Thesis, Oregon State University

The Effects of Grain Size Heterogeneity on Sediment Transport Modeling

Wickham, R.S. (2015) The effects of grain size heterogeneity on sediment transport modeling. M.Sc. Thesis, Washington State University

Economic Optimization of Forest Biomass Processing and Transport.

Zamora, R. (2013). Economic optimization of forest biomass processing and transport. Ph.D. Thesis, Oregon State University

Groundwork for Integration of Hot Water Extraction as a Potential Pre-process in a Biorefinery for Downstream Conversion and Nano-fibrillation

Zhu, R. (2016). Groundwork for integration of hot water extraction as a potential pre-process in a biorefinery for downstream conversion and nano-fibrillation. Ph.D. Thesis. Washington State University.

Conference Proceedings

Ant Colony Optimization for Road Modifications

Beck, S. & Sessions, J. (2012). Ant colony optimization for road modifications. 2012 Annual Council on Forest Engineering Meeting, September 9-12, New Bern, NC. USA

Logging Utilization Research in the Pacific Northwest: Residue Prediction and Unique Research Challenges

Berg, E., Morgan, T., Simmons, E. & Zarnoch, S. (2015). Logging Utilization Research in the Pacific Northwest: Residue Prediction and Unique Research Challenges. USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Science Symposium, December 8-10, Portland OR. USA. Available from

Assessing Spatial Distribution and Availability of Forest Biomass by Harvesting System in the Pacific Northwest

Berry, M, Sessions, J. & Zamora-Cristales, R. (2015). Assessing spatial distribution and availability of forest biomass by harvesting system in the Pacific Northwest. 38th Annual Meeting of Council on Forest Engineering (COFE), July 19-22, Lexington Kentucky, USA. Available from:

Comparative Life Cycle Analysis of Fossil and Bio-based PET Bottles

Chen, L., Pelton, R.E.O. & Smith, T.M. (2015). Comparative life cycle analysis of fossil and bio-based PET bottles. 58th International Convention of Society of Wood Science and Technology, Jun 7–12, Grand Teton National Park, Jackson Wy., USA. Available from:

Determining Reliability of Scores from an Energy Literacy Rubric

Gotch, C. M., & Langfitt, Q., French, B. F., & Haselbach, L. (2015). Determining reliability of scores from an energy literacy rubric. 2015 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, June 14-17, Seattle Washington, USA. Available from:

Deep Soil Carbon: Quantification and Modeling in Subsurface Layers

James, J., Devine, W. & Harrison R. (2013). Deep soil carbon: quantification and modeling in subsurface layers. The 12th North American Forest Soils Conference; June 16-20, 2013; Whitefish MT, USA. [Cited 8/22/14]. Available at

Competing Vegetation Effects on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen in a Douglas-fir Plantation

Knight, E., Footen, P., & Harrison, R. (2013). Competing vegetation effects on soil carbon and nitrogen in a Douglas-fir plantation. The 12th North American Forest Soils Conference; June 16-20, 2013; Whitefish MT, USA. [Cited 8/22/14]. Available at

Rubric-Based Energy Literacy Assessment of Student Posters: Effects of Extended Calibration and Addition of Raters

Langfitt, Q., & Haselbach, L. (2016). Rubric-based energy literacy assessment of student posters: effects of extended calibration and addition of raters. 2016 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, June 26-July 29, New Orleans Louisiana, USA. Available from:

Integrating Social Capital In Biojet Feedstock Facility Siting Decisions

Lovrich, N., Shi, W., Martinkus, N., Smith, P., Pierce, J., Kulkarni, A., Gaffney, M., Wolcott, M., & Brown S. (2012). Integrating social capital in biojet feedstock facility siting decisions. The Sun Grant Initiative 2012 National Conference: Science for Biomass Feedstock Production and Utilization; 2012 October 2-5; New Orleans, LA, USA. [cited 2014 July 1]. Available from:

An Innovative Approach to Identify Regional Bioenergy Infrastructure Sites

Martinkus, N., Kulkarni, A., Lovrich, N., Smith, P., Shi, W., Pierce, J., Wolcott, M., & Brown S. (2012). An innovative approach to identify regional bioenergy infrastructure sites. In Proceedings of the 55th International Convention of Society of Wood Science and Technology; 2012 August 27-31; Beijing, CHINA [cited 2014 July 1]. Accessed from:

Interdisciplinary Design Course Structure: Lessons for Engineering Instructors from a Capstone Design Course

Olsen, K., Beyreuther, T., Wolcott, M., & Laninga, T. (2015). Interdisciplinary Design Course Structure: Lessons for Engineering Instructors from a Capstone Design Course. American Society for Engineering Education; 2015 June 14-17; Seattle, WA. Available from:

Plastics Composed Entirely of Methylated Ball-Milled Lignins and Ligninsulfonates

Sarkanen, S., Wang, Y.-Y., & Chen, Y.-r. (2015). Plastics composed entirely of methylated ball-milled lignins and ligninsulfonates. 18th Internat. Symp. Wood Fibre Pulp. Chem. Vol. 1, 93-95.

Cost–Effective Logistics for Forest Harvest Residuals: the Upstream Part of the Sugar Stream

Sessions, J. & Zamora, R. (2013). Cost–effective logistics for forest harvest residuals: the upstream part of the sugar stream. 2013 AAIC-AFRI conference on New Crops: Bioenergy, Biomaterials and Sustainability, Oct 12-16, Washington, D.C. USA

Localizing Adventure Learning: Teachers and Students as Expedition Leaders and Members

Veletsianos, G., Miller, B., Eitel, K.B., Eitel, J.U.H., & Hougham, R.J., (2012). Localizing adventure learning: teachers and students as expedition leaders and members. In Resta (Ed.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference; 2012 March 5; Chesapeake, VA: AACE pp. 2164-2169.

Quantifying the Spatial Variability of Stream Bed Grain Size Distributions and the Influence on Sediment Transport Modeling

Wickham, R. & Petrie, J. (2015). Quantifying the spatial variability of stream bed grain size distributions and the influence on sediment transport modeling. ASCE EWRI Congress 2015, World Environmental & Water Resources Congress, May 17-21 Austin, TX, USA. Available from:

A Solution Procedure for Forest Harvest Residue Collection Model

Zamora, R. & Sessions, J. (2014). A solution procedure for forest harvest residue collection model. 2014 Council on Forest Engineering (COFE) annual meeting, June 22 – 25, Moline, Il, USA.

RENO: A Computerized Solution Procedure and Decision Support System for Forest Biomass Recovery Operations

Zamora, R. & Sessions, J. (2013). RENO: A computerized solution procedure and decision support system for forest biomass recovery operations. The 2013 Annual Council on Forest Engineering Meeting; 2013 July 7-10, Missoula, MT. USA. [Online Proceedings; cited 2014 July 1; Available at:

Reviving Sulfite Pulping for Sugar Production from Woody Biomass

Zhu, J.Y, Chandra, M., Gleisner, R., Gilles, W., Gao, J., Marrs, G., Anderson, D., & Sessions, J. (2014). Reviving sulfite pulping for sugar production from woody biomass. 2014 TAPPI PEERS conference, Sept 14-17, 2014; Tacoma, WA. USA