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Final Reports

Mild Bisulfite pretreatment of forest residuals

Anderson, D. & Gao, J. (2014). Mild bisulfite pretreatment of forest residuals. NARA Final Reports. Pullman, WA. Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

NARA researchers evaluate the effect of wood chip size, chemical loads, reaction time and temperature on simple sugar yield from the Mild Bisulfite pretreatment procedure.


Phase and Gate Analysis Administration

Beltz, L. (2016). Phase and gate administration. NARA Final Reports. Pullman, WA. Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

Management and Decision Support Tools were developed and utilized for the NARA project to ensure the project stayed on track to meet deliverables.


Feedstock analysis for poplar plantations within the Western Montana Corridor

Bourque, A, Stanton, B., Turland, J. & Shuren, R. (2014). Feedstock analysis for poplar plantations within the Western Montana Corridor. NARA Final Reports. Pullman, WA. Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

GreenWood Resources examines the opportunity for poplar biomass plantations to supplement the supply of biomass originating as logging and thinning residues from coniferous stands in western Montana.


Aspen modeling of the NARA conversion processes

Chen, S., Spink, T. & Gao, A. (2016). Aspen modeling of the NARA conversion processes. NARA Final reports. Pullman, WA. Northwest Renewables Alliance (NARA).

Process flow diagrams and a mass and energy balance were developed for the NARA biorefinery to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a biochemical process for the conversion of softwood residual into iso-paraffinic kerosene (IPK) product for use as a drop-in jet fuel substitute.


Clean sugar and lignin pretreatment technology

Gao, J. & Neogi, A. (2015). Clean sugar and lignin pretreatment technology. NARA Final Reports. Pullman, WA. Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA)

NARA researchers evaluate the use of wood milling as a pretreatment step for sugar hydrolysate production from Douglas-fir forest residuals.


Informed Stakeholder Assessment

Laninga, T. & Moroney, J. (2016). Informed stakeholder assessment. NARA Final Reports. Pullman, WA. Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

To address social sustainability, a large scale social assessment of informed stakeholders in the NARA region was conducted using a mixed methods survey to gain understanding of stakeholders’ knowledge, levels of support, and perceived benefits and drawbacks of using woody biomass to produce liquid biofuels.


Feedstock sourcing: NARA Years 1-3

Marrs, G., Mulderig, B., Davio, D. & Burt, M. (2015). Feedstock sourcing> NARA Years 1-3. NARA Final Reports. Pullman, WA. Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

Weyerhaeuser staff evaluates the cost and quality of softwood forest residual feedstock in the Pacific Northwest used to produce bio-jet fuel and co-products


Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Softwood Lignocellulosic Biomass to Isoparaffinic Kerosene and Lignin Co-Product

Marrs, G., Spink, T. & Gao, A. (2016). Process design and economics for biochemical conversion of softwood lignocellulosic biomass to isoparaffinic kerosene and lignin co-product. NARA Final Reports. Pullman, WA. Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance, (NARA).

A techno-econmic analysis is provided for the conversion of softwood forest residuals into bio-jet fuel and co-products.


Environmental Assessment of Biorefinery Co-Products

Pelton, R., Chen, L. & Smith, T. (2016). Environmental assessment of biorefinery co-products. NARA Final Reports. Pullman, WA. Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

This report identifies the drivers for bio-product environmental perfor­mance and criteria for environmental preferability.


Biorefinery Value Chain Outputs

Smith, P., Chen, M. & Cline, S. (2016). Biorefinery Value Chain Outputs. NARA Final Reports. Pullman, WA. Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

This study characterizes the structure of the US biofuels industry and US bio-based chemicals industry while also examining the cellulosic biofuel biorefineries regarding commercialization factors.


Refinery-to-Wing Stakeholder Assessment

Smith, P., Gaffney, M., Shi, W., Hoard, S., Ibarrola, I., Rijkhoff, S., Mueller, D., Sanders, C. & Rogachevsky, J. (2016). Refinery-to-wing stakeholder assessment. Pullman, WA. Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

This report measures and ranks perceived drivers and barriers to an economically viable sustainable jet fuel industry in the PNW region through personal interviews with key aviation fuel supply chain stakeholders and eSurveys of airport managers conducted from June to September 2015.


Biofuels Policy

Smith, P., Fowler, L. & Dahmann, K. (2016). Biofuels policy. NARA Final Reports. Pullman, WA. Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

This report reviews how both federal and state governments have affected the biofuels industry in the United States and explores the demand for advanced biofuels from the US military and for com­mercial aviation.


BGP & Social Assets

Smith, P., Gaffney, M., Hoard, S., Rijkoff, S., Mueller, D., Martinkus, N., Lovrich, N., Shi, W., Venugpal, P. & Pierce, J. (2016). BGP and Social Assets. NARA Final Reports. Pullman, WA. Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

The authors developed a holistic approach to biorefinery supply chain analysis in terms of combining biogeophysical (BGP) assets with difficult to operationalize social assets to identify communities in the NARA region more likely to support aviation biofuel facilities.


Application development of lignin in valuable engineering polymers via mild thermochemical and mechanochemical process

Zhang, J., Wolcott, M., Xin, J., Guo, X., Teng, X., Qin, J. & Li, M. (2016). Application development of lignin in valuable engineering polymers via mild thermochemical and mechanochemical process. NARA Final Reports. Pullman, WA. Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

NARA researchers developed new technologies for the preparation of engineering polymers from NARA lignin and explore the application