Rural Economic Development
Economic, social and environmental assessments have been completed to help spur biorefinery development.
Sustainability is the crucial attribute if an emerging biofuels industry is to develop and enhance our rural economy. The NARA project is assessing sustainability using a triple bottom line approach to assess economic viability (techno-economic analysis (TEA)), environmental impact (life cycle assessment (LCA)), and social impact (community impact analysis – CIA)). In addition to developing these three primary analytical tools, additional primary data is being collected to include social and market data through the Environmentally Preferred Products (EPP) team and additional environmental impact data through the Sustainable Production Team.
NARA work has resulted in:
stakeholder survey data to assess perceptions, drivers, and readiness to using forest harvest residuals to produce biojet fuel and co-products.
Results: Most survey participants showed a high level of support in general for biomass activities in their region. There was, however, statistically significant differences between support for various forms of feedstock by stakeholder groups.
life cycle assessments that compare the carbon impact of biojet fuel, activated carbon and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) made from forest harvest residuals to similar products made from petroleum.
Results: The avoided environmental impacts, derived from multiple logistics scenarios, to produce bio-jet fuel rather than burning them in slash piles are substantial. The overall global warming potential of the NARA bio-jet fuel, measured in kilograms of CO2 emissions, ranges from between 70% to 70% lower than petroleum fuel-based jet fuel.
a review of biofuels policies and of environmental-based preferred purchasing programs.
Results: State renewable portfolio standard (RSP) designs across the United States are diverse. Accounting for the variety of design characteristics and accurately specifying the policy outcomes in evaluations is an area in need of improvement.
air and water quality assessments that show the effects of using forest harvest residuals as feedstock for biojet fuel and co-product production.
Results: Modeled results indicate that prescribed burning emissions cause significantly higher PM2.5 concentrations in certain parts of the Pacific Northwest and reducing the amount of biomass burned by 70% leads to a significant reduction in simulated PM2.5 concentrations within the areas where prescribed fires occur. Water quality data is currently being evaluated.
soil nutrient, moisture, and temperature assessments resulting from forest harvest residual removal.
Results: Results from the Long-Term Soil Productivity experiment show that after Year-2 of forest residual removal there is no apparent change in soil carbon pool concentration; however, soil temperatures and respiration were affected. Ageing forest harvest residues in the field promotes needle drop, increases sugar yield for aviation fuel production, and reduces transport costs and emissions.
wildlife and soil microbial community assessments resulting from forest residual removal.
Results: Preliminary research shows no affect on soil microbial communities. Long-term experiments investigating other wildlife users are underway and have not yielded conclusive results to date.
employment and economic activity assessments resulting from a forest residual-to-biojet fuel industry based in the Pacific Northwest.
Results: Preliminary results indicate that a biorefinery in the Pacific Northwest would produce revenue of $327 million and create 2,171-2,389 total jobs. This would result in $732-$764 million in industrial output including $277-$295 million in value added through direct, indirect and induced economic effects.
Peer reviewed papers
Carbon Storage and Nutrient Mobilization from Soil Minerals by Deep Roots and Rhizospheres
Callesen, I., Harrison, R., Stupak, I., Hatten, J., Raulund-Rasmussen, K., Boyle, J., Clarke, N. & Zabowski, D. (2016). Carbon storage and nutrient mobilization from soil minerals by deep roots and rhizospheres. Forest Ecology and Management, 359, 322-331. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.08.019
U.S. Biofuels Industry: A Critical Review of Opportunities and Challenges
Chen, M., Smith, P.M., & Wolcott, M.P. (2016). U.S. biofuels industry: a critical review of opportunities and challenges. BioProducts Business, 1(4), 42-59.
Nitrogen Leaching Following Whole-Tree and Bole-Only Harvests on Two Contrasting Pacific Northwest Sites
Devine, W.D., Footen, P.A., Strahm, B.D., Harrison, R.B., Terry, T.A., & Harrington T.B. (2012). Nitrogen leaching following whole-tree and bole-only harvests on two contrasting Pacific Northwest sites. For. Ecol. Mgt., 267, 7-17. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2011.11.043
Revisiting Renewable Portfolio Standard Effectiveness: Policy Design and Outcome Specification Matter
Fischlein, M. & Smith, T. (2013). Revisiting renewable portfolio standard effectiveness: policy design and outcome specification matter. Policy Sciences, 46(3), 277-310. doi:10.1007/s11077-013-9175-0.
Understanding the Consequences of Land Use Changes on Sustainable River Basin Management in the Pacific Northwest, USA
Hasan, M.M., Barber, M.E., Goel, R., & Mahler, R.L. (2015). Understanding the consequences of land use changes on sustainable river basin management in the Pacific Northwest, USA. WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, 197, 25-35. ISSN 1743-3541.
Predicting Risk of Long-Term Nitrogen Depletion under Whole-Tree Harvesting in the Coastal Pacific Northwest
Himes, A.J., Turnblom, E.C., Harrison, R.B., Littke, K.M., Devine, W.D., Zabowski, D, & Briggs, D.G. (2013). Predicting risk of long-term nitrogen depletion under whole-tree harvesting in the coastal Pacific Northwest. Forest Science, 60(2), 382-390. doi:10.5849/forsci.13-009
Deep Soil: Quantification, Modeling, and Significance of Subsurface Nitrogen
James, J., Knight, E., Gamba, V., & Harrison, R. (2015). Deep soil: quantification, modeling, and significance of subsurface nitrogen. Forest Ecology and Management, 336,194-202. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2014.10.010
Exchangeable Cations in Deep Forest Soils: Separating Climate and Chemical Controls on Vertical Distribution and Cycling
James, J., Littke, K., Bonassi, T. & Harrison, R. (2016). Exchangeable cations in deep forest soils: separating climate and chemical controls on vertical distribution and cycling. Geoderma, 279(1),109-121. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.05.022
Current Status, Uncertainty and Future Needs in Soil Organic Carbon Monitoring
Jandl, R., Rodeghiero, M., Martinez, C., Cotrufo, F.M., Bampa, F., van Wesemael, B., Lorenz, K., Chabbi, A., & Miglietta, F. (2014). Current status, uncertainty and future needs in soil organic carbon monitoring. Science of the Total Environment, 468-469, 376-383. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.026
Determining the Effects of Biogeoclimatic Properties on Different Site Index Systems of Douglas-fir in the Coastal Pacific Northwest
Littke, K. M., Harrison, R.B. & Zabowski, D. (2016). Determining the effects of biogeoclimatic properties on different site index systems of Douglas-fir in the coastal Pacific Northwest. Forest Science. Advanced online publication. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5849/forsci.15-191
Assessing Nitrogen Fertilizer Response of Coastal Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest Using a Paired-Tree Experimental Design
Littke, K.M., Harrison, R.B., Zabowski, D., & Briggs, D.G. (2014). Assessing nitrogen fertilizer response of coastal Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest using a paired-tree experimental design. Forest Ecology and Management, 330, 137-143. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2014.07.008
Effects of Geoclimatic Factors on Soil Water, Nitrogen, and Foliar Properties of Douglas-fir Plantations in the Pacific Northwest
Littke, K.M., Harrison, R.B., Zabowski, D., Briggs, D.G., & Maguire, D.A. (2014). Effects of geoclimatic factors on soil water, nitrogen, and foliar properties of Douglas-fir plantations in the Pacific Northwest. Forest Science, 60(6), 1118-1130. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5849/forsci.13-141
Environmental Assessment of Mild Bisulfite Pretreatment of Forest Residues into Fermentable Sugars for Biofuel Production
Nwaneshiudu, C., Ganguly, I., Pierobon, F., Bowers, T. & Eastin, I. (2016). Environmental assessment of mild bisulfite pretreatment of forest residues into fermentable sugars for biofuel production. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 9(15). doi: 10.1186/s13068-016-0433-1
Hotspot Scenario Analysis: Comparative Streamlined LCA Approaches for Green Supply Chain and Procurement Decision Making
Pelton, R.E.O. & Smith T.M. (2015). Hotspot scenario analysis: comparative streamlined LCA approaches for green supply chain and procurement decision making. Journal of Industrial Ecology. 19(3), 427-440
Evaluation of Environmental Impacts of Harvest Residue-based Bioenergy Using Radiative Forcing Framework
Pierobon, F., Ganguly, I., Anfodillo, T., & Eastin, I. (2014). Evaluation of Environmental Impacts of Harvest Residue-based Bioenergy Using Radiative Forcing Framework. Forestry Chronicle, 90(5), 577-585. doi: 10.5558/tfc2014-120
Managing Moist Temperate Forests for Bioenergy and Biodiversity
Root, H. & Betts M.G. (2016). Managing moist temperate forests for bioenergy and biodiversity. Journal of Forestry, 114(1), 66-74. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5849/jof.14-114
A Survey of Bioenergy Research in Forest Service Research and Development
Rudie, A.W., Houtman, C.J., Groom, L.H., Nicholls, D.L. & Zhu, J.Y. (2016). A survey of bioenergy research in forest service research and development. Bioeng Res., 9, 534-547. doi 10.1007/s12155-016-9731-5
Pricing Forest Biomass for Power Generation
Sessions, J., Tuers, K., Boston, K., & Zamora, R. (2013). Pricing forest biomass for power generation. West J. of Applied Forestry, 28(2), 51-56. doi.org/10.5849/wjaf.12-012
The Effects of Urea Fertilization on Carbon Sequestration on Douglas-fir Plantations of the Costal Pacific Northwest
Shryock, B., Littke, K., Ciol, M., Briggs, D., & Harrison, R. (2014). The effects of urea fertilization on carbon sequestration on Douglas-fir plantations of the costal Pacific Northwest. Forest Ecology and Management, 318, 341-348. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2014.01.040
Non-peer reviewed articles
Redefining Renewable Biomass: A Policy Change with Cascading Outcomes
Moore-Drougas, K.E., Schwartz, D.T., James, L & Durglo, J. (2016). Redefining renewable biomass: A policy change with cascading outcomes. Brookings Blog Post, March 29, 2016. Retrieved from http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/planetpolicy/posts/2016/03/28-redefining-renewable-biomass
Environmental Assessments of Woody Biomass Based Jet-Fuel
Ganguly, I., Eastin, I.L., Bowers, T., Huisenga, M., & Pierobon, F. (2014, Winter). Environmental assessments of woody biomass based jet-fuel. Cintrafor News. Retrieved from http://www.cintrafor.org/publications/newsletter/C4news2014winter.pdf
Managing for Long-Term Soil Productivity in Pacific Northwestern Forests
Harrington, T.B. & Holub S.M. (2014, Summer). Managing for long-term soil productivity in Pacific Northwestern forests. Western Forester. 59(3), 1-4. Retrieved from http://www.forestry.org/media/docs/westernforester/2014/WF_June_July_Aug2014.pdf
Estimating Tree Biomass, Carbon, and Nitrogen in Two Vegetation Control Treatments in an 11-Year Old Douglas-Fir Plantation on a Highly Productive Site
Devine, W.D., Footen, P.A., Harrison, R.B., Terry, T.A., Harrington, C.A., Holub, S.M., & Gould, P.J. (2013). Estimating tree biomass, carbon, and nitrogen in two vegetation control in an 11-year old Douglas-fir plantation on a highly productive site. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Research Paper PNW-RP-591.
United States Law and Policy and the Biofuel Industry
Dahmann, K.S., Fowler, L.B. & Smith, P.M. (2016). United States law and policy and the biofuel industry. In Y.L. Bouthillier, A. Cowie, P. Martin, & H. McLeod-Kilmurray (Eds.), Law and Policy of Biofuels (pp. 102-140). Northampton, MA., USA: Edward Elgar Pub. Inc. doi:10.4337/9781782544555
Implementing Sustainability in the Global Sector: Toward the Convergence of Public and Private Forest Policy
Smith, T.M., Murillo, S.A.M., Anderson, B.M. (2014). Implementing Sustainability in the Global Sector: Toward the Convergence of Public and Private Forest Policy. In E. Hansen, R. Panwar, R. Vlosky (Eds.), The Global Forest Sector: Changes, Practices, and Prospects (pp. 237-258). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
The Effects of Increased Supply and Emerging Technologies in the Forest Products Industry on Rural Communities in the Northwest U.S.
Crandall, M.S. (2014). The effects of increased supply and emerging technologies in the forest products industry on rural communities in the Northwest U.S. Ph.D Thesis, Oregon State University.
The Effects of Biogeoclimatic Properties on Water and Nitrogen Availability and Douglas-Fir Growth and Fertilizer Response in the Pacific Northwest
Hanft, K.I. (2012). The effects of biogeoclimatic properties on water and nitrogen availability and Douglas-fir growth and fertilizer response in the Pacific Northwest. Ph.D Thesis, University of Washington
Evaluating the Environmental Impact of Woody Biomass Removal for Biofuel Production
Hasan, M.M. (2015). Evaluating the environmental impact of woody biomass removal for biofuel production. M.Sc. Thesis, The University of Utah.
Successional Accretion Along a Productivity Gradient Following Fire Exclusion in the Southern Blue Mountains
Johnston, J. (2016). Successional accretion along a productivity gradient following fire exclusion in the southern Blue Mountains. PhD. thesis, Oregon State University.
Harvest Intensity and Competing Vegetation Control Have Little Effect on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Pools in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir Plantation.
Knight, E. (2013). Harvest intensity and competing vegetation control have little effect on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir plantation. M.Sc Thesis, University of Washington
Barking Up the Right Tree: A Social Assessment of Wood to Liquid Biofuels Stakeholders in the Pacific Northwest
Moroney, J. (2015). Barking Up the Right Tree: A Social Assessment of Wood to Liquid Biofuels Stakeholders in the Pacific Northwest. Ph.D Thesis, University of Idaho.
Douglas-Fir Stump Decomposition: Modeling Carbon Residence Times
Norton, M. (2015). Douglas-fir stump decomposition: modeling carbon residence times. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Washington.
The Effects of Grain Size Heterogeneity on Sediment Transport Modeling
Wickham, R.S. (2015) The effects of grain size heterogeneity on sediment transport modeling. M.Sc. Thesis, Washington State University